Julio Padovan was born in Brazil and has been studying Spiritism since the age of 15. He holds Ph.D. degrees in Biochemistry and Molecular Biology from the School of Medicine of São Paulo/University of São Paulo, Brazil. He currently holds the positions of Senior Research Associate and Associate Director at The Rockefeller University in New York. Julio is responsible for translations of spiritist books from Brazilian Portuguese and French into English. He is a member of the Spiritist Group of New York (SGNY) where he is responsible for the Sunday Study Group; he is also a Chemistry professor at the City University of New York and a lecturer for Spiritism and the general sciences.